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                drf-jwt手动签发与校验,drf小组件:过滤、筛选、排序、分页

                今日

                """
                1、drf-jwt手动签发与校验
                2、drf小组件:过滤、筛选、排序、分页 => 针对与群查接口
                """

                签发token

                源码入口
                # 前提:给一个局部禁用了所有 认证与权限 的视图类发送用户信息得到token,其实就是登录接口
                
                # 1)rest_framework_jwt.views.ObtainJSONWebToken 的 父类 JSONWebTokenAPIView 的 post 方法
                #       接受有username、password的post请求
                # 2)post方法将请求数据交给 rest_framework_jwt.serializer.JSONWebTokenSerializer 处理
                #       完成数据的校验,会走序列化类的 全局钩子校验规则,校验得到登录用户并签发token存储在序列化对象中
                核心源码:rest_framework_jwt.serializer.JSONWebTokenSerializer的validate(self, attrs)方法
                def validate(self, attrs):
                    # 账号密码字典
                    credentials = {
                        self.username_field: attrs.get(self.username_field),
                        'password': attrs.get('password')
                    }
                    if all(credentials.values()):
                        # 签发token第1步:用账号密码得到user对象
                        user = authenticate(**credentials)
                        if user:
                            if not user.is_active:
                                msg = _('User account is disabled.')
                                raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
                            # 签发token第2步:通过user得到payload,payload包含着用户信息与过期时间
                            payload = jwt_payload_handler(user)
                            # 在视图类中,可以通过 序列化对象.object.get('user'或者'token') 拿到user和token 
                            return {
                                # 签发token第3步:通过payload签发出token
                                'token': jwt_encode_handler(payload),
                                'user': user
                            }
                        else:
                            msg = _('Unable to log in with provided credentials.')
                            raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
                    else:
                        msg = _('Must include "{username_field}" and "password".')
                        msg = msg.format(username_field=self.username_field)
                        raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
                手动签发token逻辑
                # 1)通过username、password得到user对象
                # 2)通过user对象生成payload:jwt_payload_handler(user) => payload
                #       from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
                # 3)通过payload签发token:jwt_encode_handler(payload) => token
                #       from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler

                校验token

                源码入口
                # 前提:访问一个配置了jwt认证规则的视图类,就需要提交认证字符串token,在认证类中完成token的校验
                
                # 1)rest_framework_jwt.authentication.JSONWebTokenAuthentication 的 父类 BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication 的 authenticate 方法
                #       请求头拿认证信息jwt-token => 通过反爬小规则确定有用的token => payload => user
                核心源码:rest_framework_jwt.authentication.BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication的authenticate(self, request)方法
                def authenticate(self, request):
                    """
                    Returns a two-tuple of `User` and token if a valid signature has been
                    supplied using JWT-based authentication.  Otherwise returns `None`.
                    """
                    # 带有反爬小规则的获取token:前台必须按 "jwt token字符串" 方式提交
                    # 校验user第1步:从请求头 HTTP_AUTHORIZATION 中拿token,并提取
                    jwt_value = self.get_jwt_value(request)
                    # 游客
                    if jwt_value is None:
                        return None
                    # 校验
                    try:
                        # 校验user第2步:token => payload
                        payload = jwt_decode_handler(jwt_value)
                    except jwt.ExpiredSignature:
                        msg = _('Signature has expired.')
                        raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed(msg)
                    except jwt.DecodeError:
                        msg = _('Error decoding signature.')
                        raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed(msg)
                    except jwt.InvalidTokenError:
                        raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed()
                    # 校验user第3步:token => payload
                    user = self.authenticate_credentials(payload)
                
                    return (user, jwt_value)
                手动校验token逻辑
                # 1)从请求头中获取token
                # 2)根据token解析出payload:jwt_decode_handler(token) => payloay
                #       from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import jwt_decode_handler
                # 3)根据payload解析出user:self.authenticate_credentials(payload) => user
                #       继承drf-jwt的BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication,拿到父级的authenticate_credentials方法

                案例:实现多方式登陆签发token

                models.py
                from django.db import models
                
                from django.contrib.auth.models import AbstractUser
                class User(AbstractUser):
                    mobile = models.CharField(max_length=11, unique=True)
                
                    class Meta:
                        db_table = 'api_user'
                        verbose_name = '用户表'
                        verbose_name_plural = verbose_name
                
                    def __str__(self):
                        return self.username
                serializers.py
                from rest_framework import serializers
                from . import models
                import re
                
                # 拿到前台token的两个函数: user => payload => token
                # from rest_framework_jwt.settings import api_settings
                # jwt_payload_handler = api_settings.JWT_PAYLOAD_HANDLER
                # jwt_encode_handler = api_settings.JWT_ENCODE_HANDLER
                from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
                from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler
                
                
                # 1) 前台提交多种登录信息都采用一个key,所以后台可以自定义反序列化字段进行对应
                # 2) 序列化类要处理序列化与反序列化,要在fields中设置model绑定的Model类所有使用到的字段
                # 3) 区分序列化字段与反序列化字段 read_only | write_only
                # 4) 在自定义校验规则中(局部钩子、全局钩子)校验数据是否合法、确定登录的用户、根据用户签发token
                # 5) 将登录的用户与签发的token保存在序列化类对象中
                class UserModelSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
                    # 自定义反序列字段:一定要设置write_only,只参与反序列化,不会与model类字段映射
                    usr = serializers.CharField(write_only=True)
                    pwd = serializers.CharField(write_only=True)
                    class Meta:
                        model = models.User
                        fields = ['usr', 'pwd', 'username', 'mobile', 'email']
                        # 系统校验规则
                        extra_kwargs = {
                            'username': {
                                'read_only': True
                            },
                            'mobile': {
                                'read_only': True
                            },
                            'email': {
                                'read_only': True
                            },
                        }
                
                    def validate(self, attrs):
                        usr = attrs.get('usr')
                        pwd = attrs.get('pwd')
                
                        # 多方式登录:各分支处理得到该方式下对应的用户
                        if re.match(r'[email protected]+', usr):
                            user_query = models.User.objects.filter(email=usr)
                        elif re.match(r'1[3-9][0-9]{9}', usr):
                            user_query = models.User.objects.filter(mobile=usr)
                        else:
                            user_query = models.User.objects.filter(username=usr)
                        user_obj = user_query.first()
                
                        # 签发:得到登录用户,签发token并存储在实例化对象中
                        if user_obj and user_obj.check_password(pwd):
                            # 签发token,将token存放到 实例化类对象的token 名字中
                            payload = jwt_payload_handler(user_obj)
                            token = jwt_encode_handler(payload)
                            # 将当前用户与签发的token都保存在序列化对象中
                            self.user = user_obj
                            self.token = token
                            return attrs
                
                        raise serializers.ValidationError({'data': '数据有误'})
                views.py
                #实现多方式登陆签发token:账号、手机号、邮箱等登陆
                # 1) 禁用认证与权限组件
                # 2) 拿到前台登录信息,交给序列化类
                # 3) 序列化类校验得到登录用户与token存放在序列化对象中
                # 4) 取出登录用户与token返回给前台
                import re
                from . import serializers, models
                from utils.response import APIResponse
                
                from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
                from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler
                
                class LoginAPIView(APIView):
                    # 1) 禁用认证与权限组件
                    authentication_classes = []
                    permission_classes = []
                    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
                        # 2) 拿到前台登录信息,交给序列化类,规则:账号用usr传,密码用pwd传
                        user_ser = serializers.UserModelSerializer(data=request.data)
                        # 3) 序列化类校验得到登录用户与token存放在序列化对象中
                        user_ser.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
                        # 4) 取出登录用户与token返回给前台
                        return APIResponse(token=user_ser.token, results=serializers.UserModelSerializer(user_ser.user).data)
                
                    # "一根筋" 思考方式:所有逻辑都在视图类中处理
                    def my_post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
                        usr = request.data.get('usr')
                        pwd = request.data.get('pwd')
                        if re.match(r'[email protected]+', usr):
                            user_query = models.User.objects.filter(email=usr)
                        elif re.match(r'1[3-9][0-9]{9}', usr):
                            user_query = models.User.objects.filter(mobile=usr)
                        else:
                            user_query = models.User.objects.filter(username=usr)
                        user_obj = user_query.first()
                        if user_obj and user_obj.check_password(pwd):
                            payload = jwt_payload_handler(user_obj)
                            token = jwt_encode_handler(payload)
                            return APIResponse(results={'username': user_obj.username}, token=token)
                        return APIResponse(data_msg='不可控错误')

                案例:自定义认证反爬规则的认证类

                authentications.py
                import jwt
                from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication
                from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import jwt_decode_handler
                from rest_framework.exceptions import AuthenticationFailed
                class JWTAuthentication(BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication):
                    def authenticate(self, request):
                        jwt_token = request.META.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION')
                
                        # 自定义校验规则:auth token jwt
                        token = self.parse_jwt_token(jwt_token)
                
                        if token is None:
                            return None
                
                        try:
                            # token => payload
                            payload = jwt_decode_handler(token)
                        except jwt.ExpiredSignature:
                            raise AuthenticationFailed('token已过期')
                        except:
                            raise AuthenticationFailed('非法用户')
                        # payload => user
                        user = self.authenticate_credentials(payload)
                
                        return (user, token)
                
                    # 自定义校验规则:auth token jwt,auth为前盐,jwt为后盐
                    def parse_jwt_token(self, jwt_token):
                        tokens = jwt_token.split()
                        if len(tokens) != 3 or tokens[0].lower() != 'auth' or tokens[2].lower() != 'jwt':
                            return None
                        return tokens[1]
                views.py
                from rest_framework.views import APIView
                from utils.response import APIResponse
                # 必须登录后才能访问 - 通过了认证权限组件
                from rest_framework.permissions import IsAuthenticated
                # 自定义jwt校验规则
                from .authentications import JWTAuthentication
                class UserDetail(APIView):
                    authentication_classes = [JWTAuthentication]
                    permission_classes = [IsAuthenticated]
                    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
                        return APIResponse(results={'username': request.user.username})

                admin使用自定义User表:新增用户密码密文

                from django.contrib import admin
                from . import models
                
                # 自定义User表,admin后台管理,采用密文密码
                from django.contrib.auth.admin import UserAdmin
                
                class MyUserAdmin(UserAdmin):
                    add_fieldsets = (
                        (None, {
                            'classes': ('wide',),
                            'fields': ('username', 'password1', 'password2', 'mobile', 'email'),
                        }),
                    )
                
                admin.site.register(models.User, MyUserAdmin)

                群查接口各种筛选组件数据准备

                models.py
                class Car(models.Model):
                    name = models.CharField(max_length=16, unique=True, verbose_name='车名')
                    price = models.DecimalField(max_digits=10, decimal_places=2, verbose_name='价格')
                    brand = models.CharField(max_length=16, verbose_name='品牌')
                
                    class Meta:
                        db_table = 'api_car'
                        verbose_name = '汽车表'
                        verbose_name_plural = verbose_name
                
                    def __str__(self):
                        return self.name
                admin.py
                admin.site.register(models.Car)
                serializers.py
                class CarModelSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
                    class Meta:
                        model = models.Car
                        fields = ['name', 'price', 'brand']
                views.py
                # Car的群查接口
                from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
                
                class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
                    queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
                    serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
                urls.py
                url(r'^cars/$', views.CarListAPIView.as_view()),

                drf搜索过滤组件

                views.py
                from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
                
                # 第一步:drf的SearchFilter - 搜索过滤
                from rest_framework.filters import SearchFilter
                
                class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
                    queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
                    serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
                
                    # 第二步:局部配置 过滤类 们(全局配置用DEFAULT_FILTER_BACKENDS)
                    filter_backends = [SearchFilter]
                
                    # 第三步:SearchFilter过滤类依赖的过滤条件 => 接口:/cars/?search=...
                    search_fields = ['name', 'price']
                    # eg:/cars/?search=1,name和price中包含1的数据都会被查询出

                drf排序过滤组件

                views.py
                from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
                
                # 第一步:drf的OrderingFilter - 排序过滤
                from rest_framework.filters import OrderingFilter
                
                class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
                    queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
                    serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
                
                    # 第二步:局部配置 过滤类 们(全局配置用DEFAULT_FILTER_BACKENDS)
                    filter_backends = [OrderingFilter]
                
                    # 第三步:OrderingFilter过滤类依赖的过滤条件 => 接口:/cars/?ordering=...
                    ordering_fields = ['pk', 'price']
                    # eg:/cars/?ordering=-price,pk,先按price降序,如果出现price相同,再按pk升序

                drf基础分页组件

                pahenations.py
                from rest_framework.pagination import PageNumberPagination
                
                class MyPageNumberPagination(PageNumberPagination):
                    # ?page=页码
                    page_query_param = 'page'
                    # ?page=页面 下默认一页显示的条数
                    page_size = 3
                    # ?page=页面&page_size=条数 用户自定义一页显示的条数
                    page_size_query_param = 'page_size'
                    # 用户自定义一页显示的条数最大限制:数值超过5也只显示5条
                    max_page_size = 5
                views.py
                from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
                
                class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
                    # 如果queryset没有过滤条件,就必须 .all(),不然分页会出问题
                    queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
                    serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
                    
                    # 分页组件 - 给视图类配置分页类即可 - 分页类需要自定义,继承drf提供的分页类即可
                    pagination_class = pagenations.MyPageNumberPagination
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